Bartering has a long history, dating back to 6000 BC. Bartering was introduced by Mesopotamian tribes and adopted by the Phoenicians. The Phoenicians traded goods with people in other cities across oceans. The Babylonians also refined their bartering system. Food, tea, swords, and spices were swapped for goods. Human skulls were also used at times. Another item that was frequently swapped was salt. Salt was so precious that it was used to pay the salaries of Roman troops. Europeans journeyed over the world in the Middle Ages, bartering crafts and furs for silks and fragrances. Musket balls, deer skins, and wheat were traded by colonial Americans. When money was first devised, bartering did not end, it become more organized.
Bartering is normally done between two people, but it can also be done in a multilateral setting through a trade exchange. Developed countries rarely engage in bartering unless it is done in conjunction with the country’s regular monetary system, and even then, it is only done in exceptional circumstances. During times of monetary crises, a barter system is frequently developed as a way to keep commodities and services flowing and a country running. If tangible money is unavailable, or if a country experiences hyperinflation or a deflationary spiral, this can happen.
Cash may not be available in some situations, but products or services are. People can get what they need by bartering with what they already have. For example, if a person requires lumber to build an extension to their home but does not have the funds to do so, they may be able to use the barter system to meet their needs – for example, exchanging unwanted furniture for the required lumber. Both sides must, of course, negotiate such a contract. It’s a mutually advantageous, reciprocal relationship that doesn’t need the exchange of money or another monetary means.
The inefficiency of the barter system is a problem. The first issue is that the person in need of timber may not be able to find a lumber supplier who is in need of something the lumber seeker can provide. The second possible issue arises while seeking to ensure that fair exchanges take place. A monetary economy aids in the effective management of the trade of commodities and services.